Analysis to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

With the development of science, traditional Sanger sequencing has failed to meet new requirements of low cost, high throughput and fast in speed.

Recent years, with the discovery and promotion of second-generation sequencing technology, the gene sequencing speed has increased greatly while achieving a substantial decline in costs, making large-scale application of genome sequencing possible. Now, the cost of personal whole genome sequencing is about 5,000$, and is expected to decreased to less than $ 1,000 in the next few years.

The rapid development of sequencing technology will promote the massive accumulation of DNA sequencing data, accompanied by the accumulation of the corresponding individual diseases, signs and other data at the same time. When we accumulate enough data, how to understand these data will be critical. On the micro level, generations of molecular biologists’ studying the effects of apparent biological traits genes exert on utilizing technologies like gene knockout have made breakthroughs in many crucial aspects. On the macro level, statistics and other data analysis techniques are introduced to study the relationship between gene sequences and biological phenotype. The accumulation of basic scientific research gradually brings breakthroughs in clinical applications.

There are now two types of clinical applications mainly, one aims at disease screening of ordinary people. It infers people’s future risks of getting cancer by measuring the known genes associated with a disease loci. The other aims at the diagnosis cancer and other deadly diseases. It finds in a series of drugs or plans the most effective one for certain patients by testing the loci of certain genes.

Data from BBC research shows that total global gene sequencing market increased from $ 7.941million in 2007 to $ 4.5 billion in 2013, and will reach $ 11.7 billion in the year of 2018 with the CAGR up to 21.2%.

Currently, the market of de novo sequence platform is mainly taken by several major manufacturers, including the Illumina, Ion Torrent / Life Technologies (was the acquisition of Thermo Fisher in 2014), 454 Life Sciences / Roche, etc.

Under such a circumstance, the next generation sequencing technology (second-generation sequencing) appears. As an emerging industry, the next-generation sequencing technology can be applied in clinical testing like antibody discovery, health industry, industrial and agricultural use of gene-oriented study as well as scientific research and development.

A Healthy Dose of Medicine for the Soul

A large segment of the human population takes things way too seriously for their own good. The strange anomaly is that most people laugh at the wrong thing and fail to laugh at the right thing. This serious incongruity has robbed people of a healthy attitude towards life in general.

Those who take life too seriously are in danger of missing the great joys of living in a crazy world like ours. I am not sure about the scientific research but I would guess that for every sad moment it takes one hundred laughs to balance the books. Some people are about ninety-nine laughs short of a real sane moment.

I like the old English proverb that says, “Laugh and the whole world laughs with you, cry and you cry alone.”

From my perspective, if you cannot laugh with someone you will not be able to cry with him or her and have it mean anything.

According to some medical advice, it takes more facial muscles and energy to frown than it does to smile. Of course, the only exercise some people have is frowning and who am I to take that away from them.

I am determined, no matter what, to exercise my right to smile and laugh and enjoy the world around me. I must confess that I get this attitude quite honestly.

My paternal grandfather was a Past Master in the area of practical jokes. No amount of time was too much to spend preparing for one of his famous practical jokes. His favorite holiday was April 1 and began preparing for this holiday right after Christmas.

The fact that his practical jokes at times got him into trouble did not seem to affect him at all.

Once while in the hospital for an extended period he had somebody smuggle in to him a can of snuff. For some reason he liked chewing snuff. It is the most disgusting habit I know of on earth.

He no sooner received his smuggled goods then he began chewing it. If you know anything about chewing snuff, you know it is accompanied by a lot of spitting. As usual, his timing was impeccable. Just as the head nurse passed his door and looked in, he leaned over and spit in to the garbage can he had next to his bed. The nurse, not knowing about the chewing snuff, thought he was spitting blood and immediately went into emergency mode. Immediately my grandfather was rushed into the operating room and the surgeon and medical team were assembled.

My grandfather was very sick at the time. Some did not think he would get out of the hospital.

Just as they got him situated in the operating room he pulled from under his sheet his can of chewing snuff and smiled at them. The only person in the room that thought this was in any way amusing was my grandfather. The doctors were so angry with him that they refused to see him for three days and confiscated his can of chewing snuff.

My aunt and uncle lived right next to my grandfather. My aunt was hyper clean when it came to her house. Dirt in any form was not welcome under her roof. She had a broom that was always within reach because she never knew when a piece of dirt would try to invade her domicile.

That year my grandfather found something new. I am not sure where he found it but he probably spent a lot of time looking for something like this. It was a rubber facsimile of a very nasty looking piece of vomit. To him it was a prized possession.

Most of his practical jokes were executed on April 1. Whenever we saw grandfather coming on this particular day we usually ran for cover.

He went over to visit my aunt and was sitting on the couch in the living room. They chatted for a little while and then my grandfather began to cough a little bit. He said to my aunt, “I haven’t been feeling good lately. I really don’t know what it is.” Then he started to cough a little more seriously, to which, my aunt got up and went to the kitchen to get him a glass of water thinking that might help him.

When she got back, she was shocked to see on her new coffee table a very horrible sight. My grandfather was bent over the coffee table hacking and coughing as though he was in the process of dying. On the coffee table was a very nasty looking piece of vomit.

My aunt went into hysterics. She whirled around and within a moment had grabbed her broom and started towards my grandfather. My grandfather was laughing but not for long.

Suddenly he realized that the flailing broom in my aunt’s hand was aimed at him. She chased him out of the house, down the driveway and for at least three blocks yelling obscenities at him that I dare not repeat in public society.

Take Ownership of Your Health: Hold Yourself Accountable

Over the years, I’ve conducted extensive research on health topics such as obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. I have also studied theories of behavior change. What jumps out at me the most is how many of these conditions are preventable. Yes, there are non-modifiable factors however, it is our behaviors that are causing damage to our health and wellness. Essentially, we are all aware of our unhealthy behaviors and the consequences associated with them. I feel like I’m a misfit in society because I actually enjoy physical activity, going to the gym and pushing my body to its limits. I was also criticised heavily because it took me nearly two weeks to finishing watching the third season of Stranger Things. Let that sink in. We live in a society where it is the norm to watch an entire season of a television series over a weekend, let alone one day and this is completely acceptable, even encouraged. I feel like I have to justify why I don’t binge watch television, why I wake up early to exercise and why I restrict processed foods (among many other ingredients) from my diet.

My reason is simple, I do it for my health. Health is a priority to me and I want to face the daily challenges of life with the least amount of pain, discomfort and illness as possible. I’m not a machine, I get sick on occasion and I have a history of injuries. I watch television and movies and I’m known to indulge in a meal or snack of the unhealthy variety on occasion. I try to keep my immune system optimal and reduce my risk of injury through strength and flexibility training. Let’s examine exercise. Most of us know that it is beneficial to our health, not just physically but emotionally as well. Increased levels of physical activity have the potential to lower the risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (among many more) according to multiple sources. We know that being inactive increases the risk of the mentioned conditions, yet many of us choose to do nothing about it. There is a disconnect between what we know and what we do. Do we not prioritize our health and quality of life? Do we get distracted with the ease of technology and everything available at the touch of a button? Do we know how many deaths can be prevented each year by modifying our behaviors?

So much of what we experience is preventable if we take the necessary precautions. We don’t have to wait until we get diagnosed to make a change. We can make changes so that we don’t get diagnosed. We do have the time if we make it a priority. We can find a plethora of excuses why we don’t exercises of we can focus on reasons why we should. I can honestly say that I am 100% responsible for all of the injuries I’ve sustained in my lifetime. Whether it was negligence, ignorance or ego, I was at fault and I take full ownership of that. Now let’s take ownership of our health and strive for progression.

Importance of Right Glassware

Eating and drinking may be just another imperative thing to do for humans for their survival, but they are impacted by a lot of things. One of the factors that has a direct effect on the manner in which the food is targeted and absorbed by the body is the psychology with which one consumes their food and drinks and this psychology is majorly affected by the cutlery and the utensils in which we do this repetitive task. Eating proper is not just about eating the right food in the right manner, but it is also about eating it in the right kind of dishes. The plates and glass in front of us can either make or kill the mood to eat food (no matter how good it is or how well it has been cooked). For example, a normal steel plate can be an immediate mood killer as compared to one made out of some great quality glass. Same goes for the glasses; be it for drinking water, serving alcohol to guests, or just gulping down some wine or beer when you are in the mood.

The entire paragraph can be paraphrased to basically say that the crockery, cutlery, and glasses used for food intake should be swanky and attractive to not only make the food look more good and presentable, but also to add a touch of chic and d├ęcor to your kitchen and also leave a good impression on the guests (if and when they come).

BUYING THE RIGHT TYPE OF GLASS DISHES

So far we saw how the type of dishes used can be a buzzkill for many which is why in all sorts of setups (be it your home or a professional environment such as a restaurant or a bar, etc.), following are some factors that one may consider in order to ensure that your crockery and glass dishes always appear at their best:

If plates are the concerned department, it is best advised to stay simple yet elegant and the best way to do so is to go with plain white plates reason being that they are conveniently inexpensive, present the food in the best manner possible, and also do not fade away easily.

For wine glasses, it always suggested to go with those that have a relatively sturdy build to them for them slipping away from your or your guests’ hands are always a great flight risk not worth taking.

For red wine, go with glasses with a wide bowl
For white wine, go with a glass that has a comparatively narrow bowl

Chemistry teaches us that “symmetry leads to stability” and the same should be applied to your crockery. The balance between normal and ornate design plates should be perfect.

For champagne and martini and other types of alcohol glasses, there is no fixed trend you can follow. There are quite a bunch of options to choose from depending upon the alcohol and your taste and preference when it comes to your glassware. For example, the champagne flute is the most common champagne glass, the brandy balloon is the most common glass used to serve brandy, etc.

Surviving Bone Surgeries

In the past 2 years, I have had four bone and reconstructive surgeries. In previous years I have had other types of surgeries, but from my own personal experience, I would love to share my experiences with others in hopes to help those going through the same experiences to feel more at ease and perhaps help those who have family members experiencing surgeries to understand what their loved ones are going through. The moments up to surgery are worrisome and emotional. There are ways that I will discuss on how to be reassured and keep calm. As well as before surgery, I will discuss the day of surgery, right after surgery, and recovery at home.
Let’s begin with being told you need surgery and you being ready for it. Most Doctors are more willing to help you with your issues of broken bones or pain if you yourself admit you need their help and want it. When I was diagnosed with ruptured discs in my neck, I honestly did not want surgery and wanted to find any other way possible to fix it. I went to chiropractors, therapists, home remedy therapists and to my avail, I waited too long until it was SO bad that I said, “I’m done.” I was finally ready. Our emotions about surgery sometime get the best of us and we are not willing to admit our issue is bad enough until the fact that much more damage is done. Sometimes, yes, it pays to be stubborn and wait it out, but many times over, it does not. In my case, my neck was much worse ten years after the fact than when I started. The idea of surgery and being “put out” under anesthesia frightened me, but much more, the “what if’s” that went with it. What if I died, was I ready? What if I was paralyzed, what would happen to me and my family? What if, what if, what if? I was worrying myself sick!
I am a very religious being, but the emotions did creep in. I knew I had to take a step back and trust God to help me. I started thinking of the verse in The Bible in Philippians 4:6-7 that tells us to be anxious for nothing but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which
surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Matthew 6:34 reads to not be anxious about tomorrow for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient for the day is its own trouble. And other verses about worrying started to fill my brain. I knew I had to get back into perspective that God has this. Of course, I still worried some.
In my worrying, I turned things around. I had to get prepared. Even though I hurt profusely and paid for everything I did that night or next day, things had to get finished. I knew that they told me after surgery that I wasn’t going to be able to do ANYTHING for a while and that included not getting into a vehicle for a month. I had to get my home in tip top shape and game on! My husband was going to be able to take off for a week after surgery, but he had to go back to work so I concentrated on meal planning and putting dinners in the freezer for later dates.
Some things beside the home and food may include things like the bed and where you will sleep. For neck and shoulder surgery, I recommend sleeping elevated as much as possible. You will be required to do so for some surgeries. If you do not have a lift bed, buy a wedge pillow or two. You will be limited on regular household chores. To bend and pick things up off the floor, nah, don’t plan on it. If you can find a cheap enough hand gripper that reaches to the floor and you can squeeze from your hand to open and close on the object, that would be a pretty good idea. Picking up a gallon of milk or other objects of weight will be an issue as well. Try freezing drinks in empty water bottles that you will be able to lift appropriately. Bringing pillows and a cover for the ride home may be something to keep in mind. This will help alleviate the bumps or curves in the roads. Keeping your mind set on prayer and preparation will help the worry disappear. Be sure to follow all of the surgery instructions faithfully so you are prepared for that day. So my advice to anyone emotionally worried about your upcoming surgery, give it to God and just breathe. Prepare your home however you need to. Occupy your brain with what will help you after surgery.
The day of the surgery, I have learned from my neck, lower back, left shoulder, and right knee surgery that it is a whirlwind. Of course, you will sign all kinds of permissions and forms and sign in to the hospital. This is normal and can be lengthy, but it must be done. Patience on your part may wear thin, but you got this. You will have the opportunity to speak with your Doctor and the anesthesiologist before surgery. If you have ANY concerns at all, DO NOT hesitate to ask them. Remember, they are being paid by you to do a service for you. Do not be intimidated by the fact that their job may seem more important. You are just as important and your needs and concerns must be met. I have seen many rude patients who have no care of concern for their caregivers and remember to be nice and respectful when asking questions or concerns.
You will be poked for blood and pic lines and what nots, but be prepared that it may hurt just a little, but soon it is over and once the IV’s are in and the proper drugs start pumping, you should will be properly monitored. The special someone with you may not be allowed to be with you during these blood processes, but they are usually allowed with you after and up until they take you back for surgery. I had the desire for prayer and my husband and family with me prayed. It is a comfort for myself and may be for you as well.
After surgery, they will have you in a recover room where they will monitor your blood pressure and any other issues that may come up. They will keep a close eye on your progress coming out of your anesthesia. Usually, you are in great shape and a lot loopy. At this time, the Doctor usually goes to your family member or whomever brought you in for surgery and give an account as to how things went. They will know ahead of you what went down and had to happen. When they see fit that you are ready, they will usually bring you back into the same room you were in when they put the IV’s in. Here, you will be able to be with your loved ones again. If your family is anything like mine, they will try to have a bit of fun with the idea you are “loopy” and ask you strange things or tell you oddities. Just smile and humor them!
And finally, if you do not have to stay in the hospital, they will send you home. For my neck surgery, I did have to stay overnight in the hospital, but for the others, they were all out-patient. The one thing I stress the most is BE SURE TO FOLLOW YOUR AFTER-SURGERY INSTRUCTIONS!! Read them yourself and have the individual/s read them as well. Be sure to pay attention if there seems to be anything wrong at all! Usually your gut will let you know and don’t ignore them. For example, and this is not to scare you, but I know someone not long ago who had surgery and a few days after he was home, he was filling up with his own feces because his colon was accidentally severed. The ER sent him home after just an IV of antibiotics. Some things do happen, just be sure to know your body and listen to it. Do exactly what they tell you and if you are sent home with the appropriate drugs and instructions for pain and infection, be sure to take them on a regular basis until you feel yourself that you are ready to stop taking them. If you let the pain get too far out of hand, it can be a big issue. With each surgery I had, each was very different with the affects of nerves and other issues. Be sure to contact your Doctor if they are not helping you or if you are having issues with anything!! Stay on top of everything!
It is okay to ask for help. Do not be stubborn because it can cause yourself unnecessary pain and set you back. If you need help doing some simple chores, please call on a family or church member and even perhaps a close neighbor who can get to you quickly. More than likely, they are seeking to help anyway and would love to help. Keep an ice pac on hand because that will be a go to after surgery. Have someone get it for you if you need it. Having a phone by your side is also a must. It is good to call out and answer a call instead of beating yourself up trying to get to the phone. DO NOT OVERDO IT! You may feel like you are feeling so good one day that you think, “I can do this and that today,” but just be slow and little by little or you will pay for it. I had a note pad near me and wrote a lot of notes, especially for marking down who visited or brought me gifts or food. I was SO thankful for those individuals.

Importance of Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine

The modern-day world has many challenges and thus good health is one of the greatest blessings in today’s era. For example, a rich man with a bad health will always be unsatisfied and unhappy! “Health is Wealth”. Improving your health is an opportunity that shouldn’t be missed. It is a fact that your health affects all the aspects of your life, be it professional, or personal. Probably that is the reason why evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine came into existence!

With increasing number of health-related apps and journals on the internet, you can now easily move towards a healthier lifestyle. Even the experts of medicine have admitted that the advice and products of work best when supplemented with a doctor’s standard care and supervision.

As the famous proverb suggests, “Prevention is better than cure” and evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine helps you achieve this goal. So, here are a few benefits that you might get if you follow an integrative healthcare protocol:

It helps you in receiving specific treatment plans as per your physical requirements. As each individual has a unique body, it is not advisable to subscribe to a generalized treatment protocol. An effective biotyping assessment studies your inherited traits such as body frame, personality type, digestive capacity, metabolic activity, nutrigenomics, as well as environmental factors. In this way, it provides you with a personalized holistic Integrative healthcare medicine advice.
It aims at examining and treating all the aspects of physical as well as emotional components. It is proven that daily stress negatively affects your emotions, biology and genetics. All this further results in greater risks of several chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease!
It offers a wide range of Natural Cure and Remedies so that you are not completely dependent on pharmaceuticals, many of which have side-effects. The food that you eat is one of the biggest reasons behind your healthy (or unhealthy) life! Following unhealthy food habits can result in an increase in the risk of heart conditions, high blood sugar, obesity, etc. So, what could be better than utilizing food as a medicine?
It focuses on the prevention of diseases before it even occurs. While conventional medicines are prescribed for a lifetime for chronic disease, alternative medicine examines the root causes of the disease. It also encourages the patients to focus on preventing a disease by eating healthy foods, exercise, meditation, etc.

Good,, Bad, and Trans Fats and the Health Risk They Pose

What many don’t realise is that fats are essential for good health. The brain, for instance, is contains fat, but it is the good one and not that which can kill you. As people age they become more susceptible to weight gain and the large stomachs seen in many. The fat around their middle is from bad fats that usually come from things like sugar and trans fats.

Alcohol is the same as sugar in its molecular component. In other words, sugar breaks down into the same structure as alcohol and this is why beer drinkers end up with what is described as a ‘beer gut’. But that is not trans fat but the product of a normal digestive function whereby the ‘sugar’ overloads the liver and turns into fat.

In that case one may end up with a fatty liver and possibly pancreas leading to cancer of the organs. It also leads to diabetes and loss of limbs, eye-sight, and heart disease, among other things.

Then there are the trans-fats and these are normal fats that have undergone transformation due to heat. They take on extra molecules of hydrogen during the process and that makes them virtually indigestible by the liver so that they are laid around the vital organs.

The worst practice comes from super heated and oft heated oils. They are found in commercial ovens where deep fried fish and vegetables are produced. They are the in many of the snack foods people are addicted to while the warning that should accompany them is that they can lead to diseases, as described above, and even death.

The Life of Mammogram Inventor Stafford L Warren

Stafford L. Warren was one of the most significant contributors to radiology during his lifetime. He not only was the first doctor to perform a mammogram, but was also had a hand in turning UCLA into one of the most prestigious medical universities in the country, was a special assistant on mental disabilities to Presidents John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson, and aided the U.S. government in testing of nuclear weapons before speaking out about the dangers of nuclear fallout from weapons testing, which were controversial at the time. However, his strong opinions would eventually be considered, leading up to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

Born in New Mexico in 1896, Stafford L. Warren attended the University of California, Berkeley, and graduated with his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1918. Heading to the University of California, San Francisco, he graduated with his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1922 and later did post-doctoral work at John Hopkins School of Medicine and Harvard University.

Warren became an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine in 1926. Since the Department of Radiology was brand new at the time, Warren was one of the original group of medical professionals that Dean George Whipple chose to staff the school. By 1930, Warren was an Associate Professor of Medicine. He began to study the work of Albert Salomon, a sociologist from the University of Berlin who produced over 3,000 images of mastectomy specimens and extensively studied the many forms and stages of cancer in the breast. Since Salomon wasn’t keen to recognize the life saving aspects of his discoveries, Warren expanded on his research, using radiology to track changes in breast tissue and developing a stereoscopic technique in which the patient would lie on her side with one arm raised while being X-Rayed. This was a huge breakthrough for breast cancer detection, as it allowed diagnosis of breast cancer to be possible without surgery. Warren subsequently published “A Roentgenologic Study of the Breast” in 1930. Today Warren is cited as the inventor of the mammogram for his breast imaging technique. Each year mammograms are responsible to diagnosing millions of breast cancer cases, effectively saving the lives of women the world over.

Warren, having now tackled a major milestone in his career and developing a new life saving technique, then went on to take on a new project: overseeing the health and safety of thousands during the Manhattan Project. His new role meant being responsible for the safety aspects of the detonation of the Trinity nuclear test in Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945. He later handled radiological safety when he led a team of surveyors to Japan, and to the Bikini Atoll in 1946, where more nuclear testing was done. Warren was in charge of assessing the radioactive contamination of the environment and atmosphere, which he was appalled by.

In response to this, in a piece for LIFE magazine in 1947 he wrote, “The development of atomic bombs has presented the world with a variety of formidable scientific, moral and political problems, nearly all of them still unsolved.” He went on to write an in depth analysis of the effects of the bombs, people and environment affected, the time length in which the effects of the bomb lasted, safety measures used during the Bikini expedition in which “a month passed before men could stay on some of the ships for more than an hour”, and “300 men of the safety section lived and worked in the contaminated area to protect some 42,000 other members of the Bikini expedition. Every group which entered the target area was accompanied by a safety monitor who determined how long it could stay.” The men were then bathed carefully when they returned, and if their Geiger counters indicated radioactive contamination they had to be bathed again. “Occasionally when a man had taken off his protective gloves in the ‘hot’ area, the safety section had to dissolve the outer layer of skin from their hands with acid.” Clothes and other materials found too contaminated were sunk into the ocean a mile below the surface, because there was literally “no other way to keep them permanently away from human beings.”

In the article, Warren concluded that atomic weapons can never be prepared for by anyone involved, and that “no defense would have been effective. The only defense against atomic bombs still lies outside the scope of science. It is the prevention of atomic war.”

Warren left his position in 1946, becoming the Chief of the Medical Section of the Atomic Energy Commission, which is a civilian agency that succeeded the Manhattan Project; and later he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal and the Legion of Merit for his contributions to radioactive and atomic weapons safety.

In 1947, Warren was once again at the helm of a brand new medical university, this time UCLA, which had been voted on to establish a medical school for Southern California. He was appointed as the school’s first dean. In 1951 the first students, 28 in total, were enrolled, and there were 15 faculty members. By 1955, when the class graduated, there were 43 faculty members. The UCLA Medical Center officially opened in 1955, and Warren oversaw many milestones and achievements while there, including the addition of schools for Dentistry, Nursing, and Public Health.